Instituto Henriqueta Teixeira

Instituto Henriqueta Teixeira



A three-dimensional analysis of the center of Mass for three different judo throwing techniques

©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2006) CSSI, 122-131
Combat Sports Special Issue
Research article

Rodney T. Imamura, Alan Hreljac, Rafael F. Escamilla and W. Brent Edwards California State University Sacramento, USA.
Published (online): 01 July 2006

Four black belt throwers (tori) and one black belt faller (uke) were filmed and analyzed in threedimensions using two video cameras (JVC 60 Hz) and motion analysis software. Average linear
momentum in the anteroposterior (x), vertical (y), and mediolateral (z) directions and average resultant
impulse of uke’s center of mass (COM) were investigated for three different throwing techniques;
harai-goshi (hip throw), seoi-nage (hand throw), and osoto-gari (leg throw). Each throw was broken
down into three main phases; kuzushi (balance breaking), tsukuri (fit-in), and kake (throw). For the
harai-goshi and osoto-gari throws, impulse measurements were the largest within kuzushi and tsukuri
phases (where collision between tori and uke predominantly occurs). Both throws indicated an importance for tori to create large momentum prior to contact with uke. The seoi-nage throw
demonstrated the lowest impulse and maintained forward momentum on the body of uke throughout
the entire throw. The harai-goshi and osoto-gari are considered power throws well-suited for large and
strong judo players. The seoi-nage throw is considered more technical and is considered well-suited for
shorter players with good agility. A form of resistance by uke was found during the kuzushi phase for
all throws. The resistance which can be initiated by tori’s push or pull allows for the tsukuri phase to
occur properly by freezing uke for a good fit-in. Strategies for initiating an effective resistance include
initiating movement of uke so that their COM is shifted to their left (for right handed throw) by
incorporating an instantaneous “snap pull” with the pulling hand during kuzushi to create an opposite
movement from uke.
KEY WORDS: Biomechanics, impulse, kinematics, martial art, momentum, collision

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